This map is based on the Butterfly Map, an Octahedral System of Projection invented by Bernard Joseph Stanislaus Cahill in the first decade of the 20th century. Cahill was born in London in 1866. He attended Ratcliffe College (University of London) and the South Kensington School of Art before venturing to the United States in 1888, where he worked as an architect specialising – amongst other things – in mortuary and mausoleum design; he was sometime editor of the American Builders Review. During his life, Cahill was a Fellow of the Royal Geological Society and the Royal Meteorological Society, a Member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Institute of Architects and the British Institute of Philosophical Studies. He invented the Butterfly Map, depicting landmasses to scale and with minimum disturbance of angles, with the needs of the scholarly community in mind, providing a more suitable alternative to the 16th-century Mercator projection, originally designed for nautical purposes. Cahill died in 1944. The Butterfly Map had made little impact on his contemporaries, but to mark the 99th anniversary of its 1913 patent, a redrawn version (thanks to Letty Ten Harkel) is presented here. For more information, visit: http://www.genekeyes.com/B.J.S._CAHILL_RESOURCE.html.
Note: For projects with a regional focus, a single dot has been placed in the centre of the region concerned. Projects that have a broader theoretical or conceptual focus and cannot be regionally situated are not included on the map. See the Institute of Archaeology website for further details: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/archaeology/research/projects.
The Institute of Archaeology in the Americas
1 Central and South America. Early peopling of Central and South America. James Steele and Jose Oliver with Laboratório de Estudos Evolutivos Humanos, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil; CONICET (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas), Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
2 Peru. Cuzco. Bill Sillar.
3 Peru. Sican Metallurgy book, based on excavations of metalworking and production at Batan Grande in Northern Coastal Peru. John Merkel with Southern Illinois University.
4 Dominican Republic. Macorix de Arriba Archaeological Project. José Oliver, funded by Cotsen Institute of Archaeology-UCLA and Albert Reckitt Archaeology Fund of the British Academy.
5 Mesoamerica. Resilient Networks and the Historical Ecology of Q'eqchi' Maya Swidden Agriculture. Sean Downey with University of Arizona.
6 Columbia. Gold Museum, Bogotá. Marcos Martinón-Torres.
7 Belize. Socio-environmental Dynamics in the North Vaca Plateau, Belize: A Long-Term Perspective. Andrew Bevan and Sean Downy with Dept of Geography, University of Georgia; Dept of Anthropology, Trent University; Dept of Earth Sciences, University of Western Ontario; Dept of Anthropology, Wichita State University; Dept of Geography and Geology, Western Kentucky University; Dept of Geography, University of South Florida; Dept of Environmental Science and Policy, University of South Florida; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
8 Belize. Lamanai and Marco Gonzales. Critical Periods of Transition in Culture and History. Elizabeth Graham with the Institute of Archaeology, Belmopan, Belize; University of Western Ontario; University of North Carolina.
9 Cuba. Cemetery of El Chorro de Maíta. Marcos Martinón-Torres with Cuban Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment.
10 USA. Louisiana. Cane River African Diaspora Archaeology Project. Kevin MacDonald with the US National Park Service.
11 USA. Las Capas, Tucson, Arizona. Native American Irrigation at Las Capas. Richard McPhail.
12 USA. Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC. Theano Moussouri.
13 USA. Museum of Science, Boston. Theano Moussouri.
14 USA. Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, California. Ceramic Production and Distribution at Late Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Seasonal Occupation site CA-SDI-813. Patrick Quinn with San Diego Archaeological Center, California.
The Institute of Archaeology in Africa
15 African Continent. Do larger molars and robust jaws in early hominins represent dietary adaptation? Anna Clement. Collections held at University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg and Ditsong National Museum, Pretoria (South Africa); National Museum, Addis Abbeba (Ethiopia); Nairobi National Museums (Kenya); and National Museum (Tanzania).
16 Sierra Leone. Palimpsest Memoryscapes: Materializing and Mediating the Past in Sierra Leone. Paul Basu with Monuments and Relics Commission, Sierra Leone; Sierra Leone National Museum; and British Museum Africa Programme.
17 Ethiopia. Gamo Highlands. Dorian Fuller.
18 Ethiopia. Mieso. Ignacio de la Torre with Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona; Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre la Evolución Humana (CENIEH), Spain.
19 Mali. Segou Project. Kevin MacDonald with the Malian Institut des Sciences Humaines.
20 Mali. Lower Tilemsi Valley Project. Katie Manning with Direction National du Patrimoine Culturelle, Bamako, Mali.
21 Sudan. Merowe Dam Archaeological Salvage Project. Katie Manning with British Museum and Sudan Archaeological Research Society.
22 Sahara Sahel borderlands. Making a Good Impression: 5000 years of pottery from the Sahara Sahel borderlands. Katie Manning with University of East Anglia.
23 Uganda. The Archaeology of Bananas in Buganda. Andrew Reid with Uganda Museum; British Institute in Eastern Africa.
24 Tanzania. Olduvai Gorge. Ignacio de la Torre with University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee; Berkeley University; Rutgers University.
25 The Programme for Museum Development in Africa. Elizabeth Pye with University of Nairobi, Kenya; International Centre for Conservation, Rome.
The Institute of Archaeology in Asia
26 Iraq. Ivories from Nimrud. Stuart Laidlaw.
27 United Arab Emirates, Abu Dhabi, Hili. Al Ain Oasis. Ron Humphrey (Centre For Applied Archaeology/Archaeology South-East).
28 Turkmanistan. Ancient Merv Project. Tim Williams and Dafydd Griffiths with National Dept for the Protection, Study and Restoration of Historical and Cultural Monuments within the Ministry of Culture of Turkmenistan; 'Ancient Merv' State Archaeological Park; Centre for Applied Archaeology; Heritage Without Borders; CRAterre-ENSAG, Grenoble; Carsten Niebuhr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, Dept of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies; CyArk; World Monuments Fund.
29 India. Sanchi. Julia Shaw, as sub-project of Vidisha Research Group under sanction from Dept of Archaeology, Museums and Archives, Madhya Pradesh, Bhopal, with Universities of Durham, Reading, Cambridge; Dept of Archaeology, Museums and Archives, Madhya Pradesh, Bhopal.
30 India. Orissa. Golbai Sassan. The Identification of Arable Rice systems in Prehistory. Dorian Fuller and Alison Weisskopf with Jiangsu Academy of Agriculture Science, Nanjing; Shandong University, Jinan; Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Kyoto (Japan); Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute, Pune (India).
31 Sri Lanka: Mantai. The Identification of Arable Rice Systems in Prehistory. Dorian Fuller and Alison Weisskopf (as 30).
32 China, Shandong, Qufu. Landscape of Confucius Project. Arlene Rosen.
33 China, Xi'an. First Emperor's Mausoleum. Thilo Rehren, Marcos Martinón-Torres and Patrick Quinn, with Museum of Emperor Qin Shihuang's Mausoleum, Xi'an.
34 China, Baligang, The Identification of Arable Rice systems in Prehistory. Dorian Fuller and Alison Weisskopf (as 30).
35 China, Caoxieshan. The Identification of Arable Rice Systems in Prehistory. Dorian Fuller and Alison Weisskopf (as 30).
36 China, Tian Luo Shan. The Identification of Arable Rice Systems in Prehistory. Dorian Fuller and Alison Weisskopf (as 30).
37 China: Maoshan. The Identification of Arable Rice systems in Prehistory. Dorian Fuller and Alison Weisskopf (as 30).
38 China. Early Glass and Pigments from Majiayuan Cemetery, Gansu Province. Yi-Xian Lin and Thilo Rehren with Gansu Provincial Institute of Archaeology.
39 China, Bailongsi. The Temple of the White Dragon. Lukas Nickel with Archaeological Institute of Shandong Province; Zurich University, Institute of East Asian Art History.
40 China: a) Chinese Art Market and Auctions; b) World Heritage in China; c) Colour in Early China; d) Excavated Manuscripts and the Reconstruction of Chinese History; e) Chinese Archaeology: History and Interpretation; f) China and its Neighbours; g) Ancient Chinese Bronzes; h) Public archaeology and Museums in China; i) Text, Image and Cultural Memory. Tao Wang.
41 South Korea. Han Tan river. Richard McPhail with Seoul National University.
42 Thailand. Lamphun. Marilena Alivizatou through Sirindhorn Anthropology Centre and UNESCO Bangkok.
43 Indonesia. Nusa Tenggara. Sean Downey with NSF (USA).
44 SEALINKS: The Prehistoric Emergence of Long-Distance Trade in the Indian Ocean. Dorian Fuller with Oxford University.
48 India. Landscape, Water and Religion in Ancient India. Julia Shaw with UCL; Madhya Pradesh State Archaeology.
49 India. Ramtek Survey. Julia Shaw with UCL; Groningen University.
50 India. Environmental Ethics in Ancient India. Julia Shaw.
51 Nepal. Surkhet Valley Project. Julia Shaw with UCL; University of Cambridge; Dept of Archaeology, University of Nepal.
The Institute of Archaeology in New Zealand and the Pacific
45 Easter Island, Rapa Nui. Landscapes of Construction Project. Sue Hamilton with Bournemouth University; University of Manchester; University of the Highlands and Islands (Orkney Research Centre for Archaeology); University of Chile, Santiago; Hawaii Pacific University; Rapa Nui National Parks Authority (CONAF); Museo Antropológico Padre Sebastián Englert, Rapa Nui (MAPSE).
46 Banks Islands, Vanuatu. Reassembling the collection: Feasting objects and places in the Banks Islands, Vanuatu. Sarah Byrne.
47 New Zealand, Auckland. Interrogating archaeological data for climatic information. Martin Bridge with Auckland University Dendrochronology Laboratory.
The Institute of Archaeology in Britain and Ireland
1 England. Landscapes of Governance Project. Andrew Reynolds and Stuart Brookes with University of Nottingham.
2 Southern England. Beyond the Burghal Hidage: Landscapes of Defence in the Viking Age. Stuart Brookes with University of Nottingham.
3 England, Portsmouth. Tudor warship Mary Rose. Martin Bridge and Mary Rose Trust.
4 England, Sherwood Forest. Thynghowe, Hangar Hill. Stuart Brookes.
5 England, Chichester Eastgate. Darryl Palmer (Centre for Applied Archaeology/Archaeology South-East).
6 England. Town and Country in Roman Essex. Dominic Perring (CAA/ASE) with University of Exeter; Essex County Council; Oxford Archaeology East.
7 England. Rape of Hastings Architectural Survey. David Martin (CAA/ASE) with English Heritage; Romney Marsh Research Trust.
8 England. Whitehawk Camp, Brighton. Jon Sygrave and Matt Pope (CAA/ASE).
9 England. Lewes. Dan Swift (CAA/ASE).
10 England. West Sussex Coastal Plain. David Dunkin, Greg Priestly-Bell and Jon Sygrave (CAA/ASE).
11 England, Surrey. Woking Palace, Old Woking. Joe Flatman.
12 England, Surrey. Brooklands racetrack and airfield, Weybridge. Joe Flatman.
13 England, Essex. Stanford Le Hope. Richard McPhail with Oxford Archaeology South.
14 England, Devon. Buckfast. Andrew Reynolds with Newcastle University.
15 England. Boxgrove. Mark Roberts and Matt Pope.
16 England. Yorkshire, Boynton House. Tim Schadla-Hall with Durham University.
17 England. Yorkshire, Star Carr. Tim Schadla-Hall with York University.
18 Wales. Caerleon, Priory Field. Andrew Gardner with Cardiff University; National Roman Legion Museum, Caerleon; National Museum Wales, Cardiff.
19 Scotland, South Uist. Howmore. Andrew Reynolds.
20 Isle of Man. Ballanorris mound. Richard McPhail with School of Archaeology, Classics and Egyptology, Liverpool University.
21 Ireland. Cultivating Societies: Assessing the Evidence for Agriculture in Neolithic Ireland. Sue Colledge with Queen's University, Belfast; Institute of Archaeology, Oxford.
22 Jersey. La Cotte de St Brelade. Matthew Pope.
69 England. Essex, Bow Hill Project. Mark Roberts.
70 England. Blackden Project. Mark Roberts.
71 England. Exotic Rock Project. Mark Roberts.
72 England, Clandon Park. Hinemihi Maori Meeting House: People-based Conservation. Dean Sully with Ngäti Ragana; Ngäti Hinemihi; New Zealand Historic Places Trust; National Trust; ICCROM.
The Institute of Archaeology in London
Note: London is not depicted in enough detail for individual dots – these projects and collaborations are represented by a single red star.
1 London Zoo. Theano Moussouri.
2 Camden Community Nursery. Theano Moussouri.
3 English Heritage. Theano Moussouri.
4 Geffrye Museum. Theano Moussouri.
5 Dana Centre/Science Museum. Theano Moussouri.
6 Hendon School Community Archaeology Project. Gabriel Moshenska with UCL.
7 Thames Discovery Programme. Joe Flatman.
8 The Archaeology of Air Raid Shelters: Towards an International Heritage Perspective. Gabriel Moshenska.
9 The Gresham Ship Project. Dean Sully.
10 Petrie Museum, UCL. Collections in Exile, Persons in Exile: Rethinking the Petrie Palestinian Collection, UCL and the Tawfik Canaan Collection, Birzeit University. Beverly Butler.
11 Petrie Museum, UCL. Digital Lahun Papyri. Stephen Quirke with UCL Computer Science and Imperial College London.
The Institute of Archaeology in the rest of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East
23 EUROEVOL - The Cultural Evolution of Neolithic Europe. Stephen Shennan, Sean Downey, Kevan Edinborough, Tim Kerig and Katie Manning.
24 Norway, Vestfold. E-18 highway. Richard McPhail with Culture History Museum and Oslo University.
25 Denmark. Textile and Costume from Bronze and Early Iron Ages in Danish collections. Margarita Gleba with Centre for Textile Research, University of Copenhagen; National Museum Denmark.
26 Germany. Free University of Berlin. The Materiality of Administration: the seals and seal impressions from Hierakonopolis. Richard Bussmann with British Museum; Ashmolean Museum (primary material in Cambridge).
27 Austria. Museum Der Alchemist von Oberstockstall. Marcos Martinón-Torres.
28 The Basque Country. Vittoria, Aistra. Andrew Reynolds with University of the Basque Country.
29 Spain, Córdoba: a) Heritage of Historic Cities and Multi-culturalism; b) Intercultural Dialogue. Beverly Butler.
30 Spain. Buendia Rockshelter. Ignacio de la Torre with UCL; Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre la Evolución Humana (CENIEH), Spain.
31 Spain. Cova Gran. Ignacio de la Torre with Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain; Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre la Evolución Humana (CENIEH).
32 Spain. Roca dels Bous. Ignacio de la Torre with Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain; Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre la Evolución Humana (CENIEH).
33 Portugal. Muge, Cabeço da Amoreira. Michele Wollstonecraft with University of the Algarve, Portugal; Archaeological Research Centre at the University of Lisbon (UNIARQ).
34 Portugal. São Gens, Celorico. Stuart Brookes.
35 Croatia. Early farming in Dalmatia. Sue Colledge with Rochester University of Technology, New York; University of Cambridge.
36 Romania. Noviodunum, Tulcea. Kris Lockyear with Institutul de Arheologie Vasile Parvan, Bucharest; Dept of Archaeology, University of Southampton.
37 Italy, Marche. Upper Esino Valley Survey. Corinna Riva.
38 Italy. FIBRE: Textile fibre before the Roman Empire. Margarita Gleba with Centre for GeoGenetics and Centre for Textile Research, University of Copenhagen; Royal Institute of Heritage Studies, Brussels.
39 Greece. Antikythera Survey Project. Andrew Bevan with Trent University, Canada; Greek Archaeological Service.
40 Greece. Kythera Island Project. Cyprian Broodbank with Fitch Laboratory of Archaeological Science at British School in Athens.
41 Greece, Astypalaia, Dodecanese. Cemeteries on the island of Astypalaia. Simon Hillson.
42 Greece, Keos XI. The wall paintings from the Northeast Bastion. Stuart Laidlaw with University of Cincinnati.
43 Greece, Crete. The Knossos Urban Landscape Project. Todd Whitelaw with British School at Athens and 23rd Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities of the Greek Archaeological Service.
44 Cyprus, Kissonerga-Mylouthkia, Pre-pottery Neolithic and Calcolithic settlements and subsistence economy. Sue Colledge with University of Edinburgh and Lemba Archaeological Research Centre.
45 Turkey, Çatalhöyük. The Social Geography of the Çatalhöyük Settlement. Shahina Farid, Banu Aydinoglugil and Katherine Wright with Stanford University; UCL; UC Merced; University of Southampton; Istanbul University; Selcuk University; Thrace University; Adam Mickiewicz University; State University of New York (SUNY), Buffalo; Free University Berlin.
46 Turkey. Textile Production at Miletos. Margarita Gleba with University of Bochum, Germany; German Archaeological Institute in Athens.
47 Turkey. Boncuklu Höyük. Louise Martin.
48 Cloth Cultures of Prehistoric Europe Project. Susanna Harris.
49 European Bronze Age Cultures and Technical Evolution: a Phylogenetic Approach. Sébastien Manem.
50 Material Connections: Mobility, Materiality and Mediterranean Identities. Corinna Riva with UCL; University of Glasgow.
51 Israel, Jerusalem. Understanding Heritage Wellbeing: Traditional Healers and Eye Care. Beverly Butler with Eye Hospital, Order of St John; Sheikh Jarrah.
52 Israel. Ramon crater, Negev Desert. Richard McPhail with Ben Gurion University.
53 Israel/Palestine: a) Ajjul Palace Project; b) Petrie Palestinian Project. Rachael Sparks with Ben-Gurion University of the Negev and University of New York.
54 Palestine. Khirbet al Mafjar, Jericho. Dominic Perring (Centre for Applied Archaeology/Archaeology South-East) with Birzeit University.
55 Palestine. Collections in Exile, Persons in Exile: Rethinking the Petrie Palestinian Collection, UCL and the Tawfik Canaan Collection, Birzeit University. Beverly Butler.
56 Lebanon. Qadisha Valley Project (Moghr el-Ahwal). Andrew Garrard, Sue Colledge, Kevan Edinborough, Richard MacPhail, Louise Martin and Katherine Wright with Lebanese University; Universities of Paris, Lampeter, Beirut, Davis (California), Belfast and Liverpool; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS).
57 Lebanon. Sidon. Dafydd Griffiths with British Museum and Lebanese DGA.
58 Lebanon. Beirut Souks. Dominic Perring (CAA/ASE) and Tim Williams.
59 Jordan. Epipalaeolithic Kharaneh IV. Louise Martin, Andrew Garrard and Sue Colledge.
60 Jordan. Ain Ghazal. Kathryn Tubb with British Museum.
61 a) Gender and the Emergence of Villages, Cities and States in the Ancient Near East. Katherine Wright and Sue Hamilton with UCL; b) Personal Ornaments in the Ancient Near East: Technologies, Social Identities and the Emergence of Craft Specialization and Elites. Katherine Wright and Andrew Garrard with Lebanese University, Beirut; UCL; University of Haifa; Cornell University; Istanbul Universitesi; Stanford University; University of Cambridge; University of Liverpool; c) The Emergence of Craft Specialization in the Near East: Stoneworking, Art, Sculpture and Social Technology. Katherine Wright with University of Sheffield; Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi, Turkey; University of Liverpool; University of Oxford; UCL; Stanford University; Council for British Research in the Levant; Beidha Publication Project; Lebanese University, Beirut; d) The Ancient Levant: Social Networks, Empires, Revolutions and Clashes of Civilizations. Katherine Wright with 25 scholars from universities across the UK; e) Commensality, Cooking, Dining and the Politics of Gastronomy in the Near East: The Evolution of Food Preparation Techniques and their Social Implications. Katherine Wright with Oxford University; Cornell University; State University of New York, Stony Brook; UCL; University of Sheffield; Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi, Turkey; University of Liverpool; Stanford University.
62 Egypt. EES Survey of Memphis. David Jeffreys with University of Cambridge; UCL; AERA.
63 Egypt. Material Cultures of Prehistoric and Dynastic Egypt: an Agenda for Change. David Wengrow with UCL Petrie Museum; Research Laboratory for Archaeology and History of Art, Oxford University; Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge University.
64 Egypt: a) Crucible technology; b) Late Bronze Age glass production. Thilo Rehren and Marcos Martinón-Torres.
65 Morocco. Volubilis Project: the conservation of excavated structures and small artefacts. Elizabeth Pye with UCL; Ministry of Culture, Morocco.
66 Egypt. Decolonising Archaeology: Ethnographies in Egypt. Stephen Quirke with Lahun Survey (Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest); Fayoum University.
67 Coin Hoards of the Roman Republic. Kris Lockyear with American Numismatic Society.
68 Epipalaeolithic Adaptations to Climate Change in the Levant and the Origins of Agriculture. Arlene Rosen.